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What is SCUBA?


Overall, SCUBA Diving is an activity which you are going underwater in a period of time using Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus so that you are breathing all the time while underwater.

SCUBA diving allows divers to stay underwater without the need to hold your breath to explore aquatic environments, and participate in a variety of activities, such as observing marine life, taking photographs, and participating in scientific research.

SCUBA Diving can be categorized into three:

  • Recreational Diving
  • Technical Diving
  • Commercial Diving

Recreational Diving

The very first level of SCUBA Diving is Open Water Diver. If you are yet to be a SCUBA Diver and want to be a Technical Diver or Commercial Diver, you need to be an Open Water and then you can straight away venture to Technical Diving. For Commercial Diving, you need to be an Advanced Adventure Diver.

The main level of Recreational Diving are:

1. Open Water Diver

2. Advanced Adventure Diver

3. Rescue Diver

4. Dive Master

5. Instructor

Being an Open Water Diver, you are eligible to dive up to 18 meters only. You can dive up to 30 meters with the qualification as an Advanced Adventure Diver.

There are other certifications in Recreational Diving that you can participate regardless of your qualification.

The maximum number of tanks used for Recreational Diving are two tanks (which is Sidemount Diving or Twin Tank Diving) and dive within the No-Deco-Limit (NDL). However and very unfortunate, there are lots of Recreational Divers as well as Dive centers being negligence on this matter. They dive beyond the NDL without undergo a proper Technical Diving Training.

This is why Qoshki Dive very particular on reminding our divers that it is very crucial for you to take control on your own dive and to dive within your eligibility.

Yes, the cost to take another course is pricey but hey, there is no value or amount for your safety right?

When it comes to your safety, there are no way for you to save cost, other than you need to invest more.

Below are the overview of Recreational Diving Courses offered by SCUBA Diving International (SDI).

Technical Diving

Technical diving is a type of diving that goes beyond the limits of recreational diving and involves exploring deeper, darker, and more challenging underwater environments. It requires specialized equipment and training to ensure the safety of the diver, and it's typically done with a focus on exploration and scientific research.

Technical diving can include a variety of diving activities, such as deep wreck diving, cave diving, and mixed-gas diving. Deep wreck diving involves diving on sunken ships or other structures at depths that exceed the recreational diving limits, while cave diving explores underwater caves and other subterranean environments. Mixed-gas diving, also known as Trimix Diving, involves the use of different gases besides air to reduce the risk of decompression sickness.

In addition to the advanced equipment, technical divers must also have a thorough understanding of decompression theory, dive planning, and emergency procedures.

Technical diving is not for everyone and requires a significant investment in time, training and equipment. However, for those who are willing to make that investment, it offers the opportunity to explore the underwater world in exciting ways, to experience different environment and to learn about the history and ecology of the underwater world.

Most Technical Divers stick to their technical diving configuration while doing recreational diving because the configuration give more safety, comfortability 

Below are the overview of Technical Diving Courses offered by Technical Diving International (TDI).

Commercial Diving

Commercial Diving is a type of professional diving that involves using specialized techniques and equipment to perform a wide range of underwater tasks in various industries, such as construction, engineering, scientific research and, oil and gas exploration.

Commercial divers perform wide range of underwater tasks such as:

  1. 1
    Welding, cutting, inspecting and repairing
  2. 2
    Installing equipment
  3. 3
    Scientific Research
  4. 4
    Salvaging wrecks
  5. 5
    Supporting offshore oil and gas drilling and production operations

Commercial divers can easily being identified with their equipment which is their helmets and long cables attached to their helmet that are for breathing and communication. Usually they are being underwater for along time, even in some cases more than one hour to do the work.

Commercial diving is a high-risk profession that requires specialized training and certification. Divers must undergo extensive training in areas such as diving techniques, equipment operation and maintenance, emergency procedures, and decompression sickness prevention.

Since it is a high risk profession, it comes with a rewarding payment. The profession is also in demand all around the world.


1

Regulator

Regulator is a breathing apparatus for divers underwater. A regulator is consist of several parts which are:

- First Stage

- Second Stage (2 units)

- Low Pressure Inflator (LPI)

- Submersible Pressure Gauge (SPG)

The First Stage is the one that we attached to the tank. There 2 types of First Stage which are DIN and Yoke. DIN First Stage is often used by Technical Divers as it is much safer as we 'screwed' the First Stage to the tank. If any impact happen, DIN First Stage is proven can prevent leaks. Yoke First Stage is like we 'clamped' to the tank. Using Yoke First Stage needs extra cautious as the mechanism is prone to leakage.

Which one is the better First Stage? We are brutally honest to be bias; DIN definitely because we are Technical Divers. Do take note, when you own a DIN Regulator, you can use Yoke tank by using a converter. If you have the Yoke Regulator, you can't use the DIN tank unless you change the First Stage. 

There are two Second Stages per regulator; Primary and Secondary. These are the ones that you put in your mouth to breath the air. Why there are two? Redundancy; in case one of them is poor functioning, you can swap to the other one. Another main reason is; in case of emergency while diving, your dive buddy is low of air or out of air, you can share your air by giving the Secondary Second Stage to your dive buddy.

LPI is used to put the air inside your Buoyancy Controlled Device (BCD). 

SPG is functioned to tell the divers how much air is inside the tank. The divers will keep monitoring the amount of air they have left and plan their dive accordingly. The gauge is made of durable materials that are resistant to corrosion and can withstand the pressure. It also has additional features such as glow-in-the-dark displays.

The hoses connecting the First Stage to Second Stages and LPI are low pressure type while the hose connected to the SPG is the high pressure type. 

Standard regulator configuration using 

  • Primary 2nd Stage - 55cm - 75cm
  • Secondary 2nd Stage: 90cm - 100cm
  • LPI Hose: 60cm
  • SPG Hose: 80cm

Long hose regulator configuration using 

  • Primary 2nd Stage: 210cm
  • Secondary 2nd Stage: 55-60cm
  • LPI Hose: 60cm
  • SPG Hose: 60cm

Long hose regulator configuration is an adaptation from Technical Diving configuration. 

Qoshki Dive applying the long hose regulator configuration for Recreational Diving Courses as this configuration is gives more safety and comfort for air sharing, making sure the Second Stages are safekeeping during diving and ease the Recreational Divers to transition to Technical Diving.

2

Dive Computer

SCUBA Divers use dive computer to monitor and manage their dive by giving these information to divers:

  • Depth and Time. Dive computer provide real-time information about the current depth, maximum depth reached and the duration of the dive. These information allowing divers to plan their dive and execute safe and controlled ascents and descents. 
  • Decompression Management. Dive computer can calculate the amount of time that a diver can safely spend at a particular depth and provide decompression guidelines for safe ascents. 
  • Safety features. Most dive computers have the built-in safety features such as audible and visual alarm or vibration that alert the diver when they are ascending too quickly, staying at a depth too long or nearing the limits of their dive plan.

Overall, the main function of a dive computer is to provide a diver with crucial information about their dive, allowing them to dive safely and enjoyable while minimizing the risks associated with diving.

Shearwater Perdix

Shearwater Teric

Shearwater Peregrine

Shearwater Perdix

3

Buoyancy Controlled Device (BCD)

The ultimate tool for divers to control their buoyancy while underwater is by using their lungs. When the divers need to be more buoyant after using their full capacity of their lungs, then the divers will use Buoyancy Controlled Device (BCD) is a tool to assist them in controlling their buoyancy. Divers use BCD as if they are wearing school backpack. 

There are 2 main types of BCD which are Backplate and Jacket.

Backplate BCD popularly known as "1 BCD for all" because it is designed to fit everyone, regardless of differences in size. It is just a matter to adjust the webbing to fit comfortably any divers. While for Jacket BCD, divers need to wear based on specific size. So instead to buy several sizes of Jacket BCD that might not enough or no size available for divers, several Backplate BCD can fit every divers.

Backplate BCD is consist of several compartments that can be detached and re-attached any time. When any of these compartments is teared or broken, you can just replace that specific compartments instead of replacing a whole unit of BCD. While for Jacket BCD, it is a whole unit. Any part on the Jacket BCD that is teared or broken, it need to be replaced as a whole unit or else the capability and function of that Jacket BCD is compromised. Hence, compromised the safety of divers. 

For those who love colors, Backplate BCD can give you lots of color choices.  

However, not many dive centers provide Backplate BCD for rental even it is proven to have greater benefits than Jacket BCD. It might be due to hesitation to make changes or they choose to stay in their comfort zone of using Jacket BCD.

For Backplate BCD, there are two types which are for Single Tank and Twin Tank. Backplate BCD for single tank can be used for all in Recreational, Technical and Commercial Diving. For Twin Tank Backplate BCD, it is used widely among Technical Divers as they need to stay longer underwater. Some Recreational Divers use Twin Tank Backplate BCD as they can have redundancy of air and no need to change tank for two dives.

Sidemount BCD is another kind of BCD. It is used to bring two tanks, which is located at each side of the diver. This kind of BCD widely used among Technical Divers and can be use for recreational dive purposes too.

Get to know more details on:

Do you want to try our BCDs?:

4

Mask

Mask for SCUBA Diving is used to protect the eyes and nose from water. That does not mean, your eyes and nose are dry all the time. There are some situation when you need to flood your mask with water purposely or the water accidentally entered your mask. That's why the crucial skill of a SCUBA Diver is; able to flood and clear the mask at any time. 

There are two type of mask; Single Lens and Dual Lens. These two kinds has no significant benefit differences. However for those using spectacles, they need to use Dual Lens mask as only this mask can accommodate powered lens.

In some situation, due to unique face shape, some divers suits to wear Single Lens or vise-versa.

5

Fin and Booties

Fins help divers to move efficiently and effectively underwater. There are two type of fins; Full Foot Fins and Open Heel Fins. 

The full foot fins are designed to be worn without booties and are ideal form warm water diving. They are generally lighter and can be less comfortable if not properly fitter.

The open heel fins are designed to be worn with neoprene booties. They typically offer more power and control than full foot fins and can be adjusted for a custom fit. 

Most divers opt to open heel fins which worn together with booties mainly for comfortability. When the divers went for shore dive, they can walk comfortably on the beach and prevent any injury due to rocks. In another situation, the booties give comfort and assist better when finning underwater and can give warmness to divers' feet.

When choosing SCUBA diving fins, it is important to consider the size and shape of your feet, as well as your diving needs and preferences. A proper fit is crucial, as ill-fitting can cause discomfort, blisters or even injuries. Make sure to try both booties and fins together at the dive shop and to buy the exact same booties and fins or else it might won't fit properly hence will troubling you while diving in the future.

6

Diving Attire

Diving attire can be ranged and not limited to rash-guard, wetsuit and drysuit. Basically wear anything that helps you to dive comfortably. Hoodie is also part of diving attire. Divers wear hoodie for protection from any debris from entering their ears, keep their hair neat and to 'seal' their mask. 

Wetsuit has several thickness options. It depends on which thickness is your preferences depend on how cold can you hold. The colder you feel, the higher thicker wetsuit you need. Some divers opt to drysuit to cater their cold situation and drysuit is the most preferable attire to dive in very cold water such as Antartica. Even some divers in tropical water which they feel 20 degrees Celsius is cold for them to wear drysuit. Another element of drysuit is that it help divers to maintain dry during the dive as drysuit main function is water repellent. 

7

Tank of Compressed Air

Known as either SCUBA tank or cylinder. It is a high-pressure vessel used to store compressed air for divers to breathe while underwater. Lots of misunderstanding that divers breath oxygen. This is absolutely inaccurate. We breathe AIR, not oxygen, only when you faced medical attention situation that you need to breath oxygen. Divers breath compressed air. Only Technical and Commercial Divers breathe other than air such as Nitrox or Trimix, depended on their dive plan. The air that we breath is consist of 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen. 

The tank is typically made of aluminium or steel, and designed to withstand the high pressure of the air inside. The tank is filled with the compressed air using a high-pressure compressor. The amount of air inside the tank is measured in terms of its capacity, typically in liters or cubic feet. The most common size of SCUBA tank is 80 cubic feet. Smaller and larger tanks are also available.

In order to breathe the air inside the tank, divers use the regulator. The regulator is attached to the tank valve. It is important to properly maintain and handle the tanks to ensure the safety while diving. This includes regularly inspecting the tank for signs of damage or corrosion, storing it in cool, dry place away from direct sunlight, and following proper handling and transportation procedures.

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7

Weight

In SCUBA diving, weights are used to counteract the buoyancy of the divers. The number of weight used among divers are variety. Some divers only need one weight. Some need about 8 weights. It depends on their buoyancy skill, body fat and also the diving attire that they used. Thicker wetsuit and drysuit make divers more buoyant so definitely they need to use weight to assist their buoyancy performance.

There are several types of weight used in SCUBA diving:

  1. Integrated weight systems. These are weight pockets built into the buoyancy controlled device (BCD). The weight is easily adjustable by adding or removing small pouches and the system can be quickly released in case of an emergency.
  2. Weight belts. These belts made of nylon and is used by slipping through the gap on the weight. It is wear as easy as wearing the ordinary buckle belt. 
  3. Ankle weights. These are small weights that can be attached to the ankle of the diver. Not many divers using this kind of weight.

It is important for divers to select an appropriate amount of weight because too much weight can cause the diver to sink too quickly and make the divers easily tired. The divers also should know to release the weight in case of emergency.  

7

Lights

Lights are used to illuminate the underwater environment for improved visibility, safety and enjoyment while diving. The type of light used depends on the diving conditions, the depth of the dive and the type of diving being done.

Lights come in different sizes, brightness levels and beam angles to suit different diving situations. It is important for divers to choose light that is appropriate for their diving needs and to properly maintain and store their light to ensure they function properly and remain safe to use while diving.  

8

Compass

Divers use compass to help them navigate underwater and maintain their direction. Underwater navigation can be challenging, as divers don't have the same visual cues they have on land and there may be currents that can push them off course. 

There are several techniques that divers use to navigate with a compass. One common techniques is to swim in a straight line using a compass bearing, then turn and swim back on the same bearing to return to the starting point. 

Compass can be digital or mechanical type. The digital compass is embedded in the dive computer while the mechanical type is the normal one. Some divers rely on the compass in their dive computer while some divers bring along their mechanical compass for redundancy measures in case the digital compass is inaccurate. 

It is important to regularly check the compass throughout the dive to ensure that you are staying on course.

Underwater Navigation

The common underwater navigations are:

  1. Reciprocal (180 degrees)
  2. Square pattern (90 degrees)
  3. Triangle pattern (120 degrees)

SCUBA Diving Equipment Assembly


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Diving agencies are like Universities that comply with World Recreational SCUBA Training Council (WRSTC) standard.

Each certification organization is simply a marketing model with the goals of producing a safe product; YOU ARE THE DIVER! 

So in truth the different dive certification organizations have the ability to travel different roads, but all roads must lead to the same goal.

Which Agencies Are We?


Scuba Diving International (SDI) - for Recreational Scuba Diving

SDI has the unique advantage of seeing the recreational diving community through the experienced eyes of technical diving. Standards that ensure genuine diver safety while maximizing the pleasures of learning to dive are the foundation of SDI's diver training programs.

Technical Diving International (TDI) - for Technical Scuba Diving

TDI is the largest technical certification agency in the world.  As one of the first agencies to provide training in mixed gas diving and rebreathers, TDI is seen as an innovator of new diving techniques and programs which previously were not available to the general public.